Tag Archives: transgender teenagers

Long-term follow-up of individuals undergoing sex reassignment surgery: Psychiatric morbidity and mortality – Review of Abstract

The authors of the study suggest that gender reassignment surgery may increase psychiatric problems for some people and decrease them for other people.

The study looked at the medical records of 104 people who had sex reassignment surgery in Denmark between 1978 and 2000.

They found that there was no statistically significant difference between the number of psychiatric diagnoses before surgery and after surgery.

In addition, the people who had diagnoses before surgery were different from the people who had diagnoses after surgery. Only 6.7% of the group had a psychiatric diagnosis both before and after surgery while 27.9% of the group had a psychiatric diagnosis before surgery and 22.1% had one afterwards.

According to the authors “this suggests that generally SRS may reduce psychological morbidity for some individuals while increasing it for others.”

The study also found that:

Psychiatric diagnoses were over-represented both before and after surgery (i.e. the group had more psychiatric issues than the general population).

Trans men (born female) had a significantly higher number of psychiatric diagnoses overall; there were no other statistically significant differences between trans men and trans women.

At the same time “significantly more psychiatric diagnoses were found before SRS for those assigned as female at birth.”

10 people had died at an average age of 53.5 years.

Questions for the Future

The most important question is, of course, how can we make sure that SRS does not increase psychiatric problems in the future?

Is it a question of better screening to identify gender dysphoria?

Do people need more support and counseling after surgery?

Should some people transition without getting surgery?

Were poor surgical outcomes linked to psychiatric problems?

Could low hormone levels after surgery cause problems for some people?

Were people’s problems caused by the surgery or some other aspect of transition that happened after surgery?

Or to put it another way, how do we identify which people might benefit from surgery and which might be hurt by it? or do we need to make other changes to prevent new psychiatric diagnoses after surgery?

It would also be helpful to know more about the specific psychiatric diagnoses before and after surgery. Are we seeing increases in depression, anxiety, eating disorders, or what?

How did the patients whose mental health improved compare to those whose mental health got worse? Were they older or younger? What were their life circumstances?

What does it mean that trans men had more psychiatric diagnoses before surgery? Was surgery more beneficial for them than for trans women or did trans men just have more psychiatric problems overall?

How long after surgery did people get the new psychiatric diagnoses?

More about the study:

Only the abstract of the study is available online, so it is hard to interpret some of their results.

The abstract gives few further details on their methodology, but a similar study of physical illnesses and death looked at the records of 56 trans women (born male) and 48 trans men (born female). The follow-up period began when people received permission for surgery. The group used in the other study represented 98% of all people who officially had SRS in Denmark from 1978 to 2000.

Original source:

Long-term follow-up of individuals undergoing sex reassignment surgery: Psychiatric morbidity and mortality by Simonsen RK, Giraldi A, Kristensen E, Hald GM in Nord J Psychiatry. 2016;70(4):241-7.

Where to Call if you Need Help

This is not a political blog, but I think we all need a reminder to take care of ourselves right now. Reach out for help – there are people who want to help you.

And to parents who read my blog, please tell your kids you love them and will fight for them.

Sources of Help:

Trans Lifeline for trans people:

  • US number: 1-877-565-8860
  • Canadian number: 1-877-330-6366
  • and their website.

The Trevor Lifeline for LGBTQ youth (US) – 1-866-488-7386 and their website.

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (US): 1-800-273-TALK (8255) and their website.

The International Association for Suicide Prevention – their website has an interactive map with phone numbers and locations of crisis centers.

From Maria Shriver’s blog, Powered by Inspiration.

Two Years After My Suicide Attempt, I’m Still Living and Sharing

“Waking up two years ago gave me opportunities, some of which seem obvious but some of which I’m still discovering. I have the opportunity to continue the life I began and do the things I want to do. I have the opportunity to offer help to people who would have helped me if only I had shared what was going on.”

Read more here.

Finally, some helpful tips from the website Recommendations for Reporting on Suicide:

Suicide Warning Signs

  • Talking about wanting to die
  • Looking for a way to kill oneself
  • Talking about feeling hopeless or
    having no purpose
  • Talking about feeling trapped or
    in unbearable pain
  • Talking about being a burden
    to others
  • Increasing the use of alcohol or drugs
  • Acting anxious, agitated or recklessly
  • Sleeping too little or too much
  • Withdrawing or feeling isolated
  • Showing rage or talking about seeking revenge
  • Displaying extreme mood swings

The more of these signs a person shows, the greater the risk. Warning signs are associated with suicide but may not be what causes a suicide.

What to Do

If someone you know exhibits warning signs of suicide:

  • Do not leave the person alone
  • Remove any firearms, alcohol, drugs or sharp objects that could be used in a suicide attempt
  • Call the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-TALK (8255)
  • Take the person to an emergency room or seek help from a medical or mental health professional.

Male-to-Female Transsexualism: Technique, Results and 3-Year Follow-Up in 50 Patients – Study Review

This is a 2010 study of the functional and cosmetic outcomes of the surgical techniques used at a German clinic. They followed 50 trans women who had surgery between May 2001 and April 2008. The surgeries were all performed by the same surgeon who had extensive surgical experience.

Before surgery, all the patients had completed a two year “real life” test and had been recommended for surgery by two independent psychiatrists. They had been on hormones for at least one year, although they stopped taking hormones a month before the surgery.

The patients were sent a questionnaire to follow-up on sexual function and patient satisfaction with the surgery. All 50 patients completed the questionnaire; the mean follow-up time was 3 years.

Outcomes of Surgery

Regrets:

One person regretted the surgery and became clinically depressed. They attempted suicide twice and had not fully recovered two years later.

The patient was 24 years old and the authors suggest that the ideal age for surgery is 30 years old. They also recommend thorough evaluation and good counseling before surgery.

This is consistent with other studies that found a regret rate after surgery of 3-4%. In a group of 50 people getting the surgery, you would expect one or two people to wish that they had not had the surgery.

The patient regretted the surgery 3 days after the operation.

Complications:

6% had bleeding after surgery

4% required operative revision due to the bleeding (two of the three who had bleeding)

10% had shrinkage of the vagina which could be corrected by a second surgical intervention

4% had a minor bulge in the anterior vaginal wall which could be easily fixed with simple excision

There were no post-operative rectocele (bulge of the rectum into the vagina) or urethrovesical fistulae.

The authors of the study say that the incidence of surgical complications was comparable to the data in the literature.

The 6% of patients with bleeding that they report is better than the 10% reported by a United Kingdom clinic in this review.

Their rate of complications is considerably better than this 2001 study at a different German hospital which reported that “Major complications during, immediately and some time after surgery occurred in nine of the 66 patients (14%), including severe wound infections in six, a rectal lesion in three, necrosis of the glans in three and necrosis of the distal urethra in one. Minor complications, e.g. meatal stenosis in seven patients, occurred in 24 (36%) of patients.”

They do not report any problems with narrowing of the urethra, which is also an improvement over the 3-4% reported by the clinic in the Untied Kingdom.

They do not report any problems with pulmonary embolisms or fistualae between the rectum and vagina. These are problems that are relatively rare and you might not expect to see them in a group of only 50 people; the review from the United Kingdom reported a rate of 2 in 1000 pulmonary embolisms with 1 death. They also reported a rate of 6 in 800 rectal fistulae.

Minor complications:

6% subcuntaneous hematoma that did not require any further therapy (i.e. they had a ruptured blood vessel causing a lump or bruise under the skin)

General:

Mean operative time – 190 (160–220) minutes or 3.16 (2,66- 3.66) hours

Mean depth of the vagina – 10 (6–14) cm or 3.93 (2.36-5.51) inches

Median hospital stay – 10 (6–14) days

In comparison, the United Kingdom clinic reported an operative time of 120-150 minutes, while the 2001 German study reported a mean time of 6.3 hours with a range of 4-9 hours.

Satisfaction with results at follow-up

Appearance:

10% of the patients were dissatisfied with the appearance of their labia

90% were satisfied with the appearance of their genitals

We need more research on how to construct labia that are satisfactory for all trans women.

Depth of Vagina:

20% were dissatisfied with the depth of their vagina

80% were satisfied with the depth of their vagina

4% were still dissatisfied with their vagina after a second operation

Of the ten women who were dissatisfied with the depth of their vagina, eight had a new operation to augment the vagina. Of the women who had the second operation, two were still dissatisfied (25%). Perhaps the secondary operation could be improved.

We need to know more – why were 20% dissatisfied with the depth of their vagina? What can be done to ensure that all trans women have vaginas that are deep enough?

How deep were the vaginas at follow-up? Were there some women whose vaginas were not deep who were satisfied anyway?

Sexual Pleasure:

5% of the trans women having regular sexual intercourse experienced pain during intercourse; 84% of the trans women were having regular sexual intercourse

70% of the trans women reported achieving clitoral orgasm

The authors are not clear here, but it looks like 30% of the trans women who had this surgery are unable to achieve orgasm. This is a serious problem; they should have addressed it more fully.

Were some of the women not attempting orgasm? Did everyone answer the question?

At one point the authors say, “84% reported having regular sexual intercourse, of whom 35 had clitoral orgasm” – that would change the numbers to 35 out of 42 women which would be better (although it would still leave 17% of the sexually active women not having orgasms). On the other hand, they also say, “Of the 50 patients, 35 (70%) reported achieving clitoral orgasm.”

As it stands, it looks like a large percentage of trans women are not having orgasms after surgery. That would be a problem and worthy of more discussion in the results. The ability to orgasm is an important, vital aspect of the outcome of these surgeries.

In addition, doctors and surgeons need to address the problem of pain during intercourse. Is there something trans women can do themselves to reduce the pain? Can the surgeries be improved in this area?

From their Discussion and Conclusions:

“The incidence of surgical complications was comparable to the literature data. The most common complication (10%) in the follow-up was shrinkage of the neovagina. In all cases a second surgical correction was necessary to definitively solve the problem. In all patients vaginopexy to the sacrospinous ligament was carried out, reducing the rate of neovaginal prolapse as described in the literature.

After 3 years, 49 patients were satisfied and did not regret or had doubts about having undergone sexual reassignment surgery. The only exception was a 24-year old patient who, 3 days after the operation, regretted his decision. After that, he developed a strong depression which needed psychological therapy. Two years after surgery, the patient had still not recovered completely and had attempted suicide twice.

We agree with Rehman and Melman that the best age to undergo sexual reassignment surgery is 30 years, an age that enables patients to adjust socially and sexually, increasing the possibility to develop attractiveness and allowing the patients to mature in dealing with new life stresses. Moreover, before undergoing such surgery, it is our opinion that all patients at all ages need deep and intensive psychological examination and must be informed about all the functional and cosmetic risks associated with this operation and, above all, about the impossibility of regretting the decision and returning to their natural gender.

With improvements in surgical technique over the years, male-to-female gender-transforming surgery can assure satisfying cosmetic and functional results, with a reduced intra- and postoperative morbidity. Nevertheless the experience of the surgeon and the center remains a central important aspect for obtaining optimal results.”

The full article includes graphic pictures of surgery as well as details of their technique; you can get it at the link below.

Original Source:

Male-to-Female Transsexualism: Technique, Results and 3-Year Follow-Up in 50 Patients by Wagner S, Greco F, Hoda MR, Inferrera A, Lupo A, Hamza A, Fornara P in Urol Int. 2010;84(3):330-3.

Help for Eating Disorders

You are not alone. Help is just a call or click away.

If you or someone you know is struggling with an eating disorder, we are here to help.

  • Call our toll free, confidential Helpline at 1-800-931-2237
  • Click to chat with a Helpline volunteer (click at left on their website)

We are here every  Monday-Thursday from 9:00 am – 9:00 pm and Friday from 9:00 am – 5:00 pm (EST). Our helpline volunteers will be there to offer support and guidance with compassion and understanding.”

From the National Eating Disorders Association website. More information at their website.

You can leave messages at their helpline when they are closed.

Gender Identity Disorder and Anorexia Nervosa in Male Monozygotic Twins – Review

This is a fascinating study of identical twins; one had gender dysphoria and one did not. Both twins developed anorexia.

Both twins were feminine in behavior from a young age and both were sexually attracted to men. Both had a difficult childhood with an abusive father.

Both twins were underweight at birth and needed intensive care. Both had developmental delays.

However, one twin considered himself to be a gay man while one identified as a straight woman.

In this case study, gender dysphoria did not cause the eating disorder.

This case highlights the importance of other factors in eating disorders, including genes, hormones, and trauma.

It raises the question; how important is gender identity as a cause of eating disorders?

This case is different from other case studies where gender dysphoria seems to be intimately linked to the eating disorder.

We can’t look at these two patients and conclude that gender dysphoria never contributes to eating disorders. However, this case is a good reminder to be cautious about drawing conclusions from other case studies. Perhaps there are just some people with eating disorders who also have gender dysphoria. Or perhaps there is some other factor which causes both eating disorders and gender dysphoria.

As always, we need more studies.

More about the Patients:

Eating Disorders

Twin A was diagnosed with AN-purging subtype and Twin B was diagnosed with AN-restricting subtype.

Twin B developed an eating disorder at an earlier age, but Twin A was more underweight and had a more disturbed perception of his body. Furthermore, Twin A was hospitalized for his eating disorder and Twin B was not.

Neither twin seems to have been able to maintain a healthy weight.

At age 16 Twin A “was admitted to a children’s hospital because of AN. Later, he was hospitalized in the psychiatric inpatient unit for adolescents. At first, his eating behavior was restrictive. Then he reported intermittent vomiting (AN binge-purge). His weight decreased to 46 kg/1.79 m (body mass index [BMI] ¼ 14.3 kg/m²). His ideal weight was 44 kg according to a BMI of 13.7 kg/m² , which shows his severe disturbance in body perception. During hospitalization, his behavior was sometimes aggressive. He was emotionally unstable, depressed, and was rarely able to engage in stable relationships. Despite strict dietary rules, he achieved a maximal weight of 55 kg (BMI ¼ 17.2 kg/m²). Soon after being discharged, his weight decreased again.”

Twin B’s eating disorder began at a younger age. “In puberty, he developed severe underweight. At the age of 13, he was 42 kg/1.58 m (BMI ¼ 16.8 kg/m² ). When he was referred to our outpatient unit at the age of 18½ years [for gender dysphoria], his weight was 48 kg and his height was 1.76 m (BMI ¼ 15.5 kg/m² ). He denied deliberate dieting, binging, or purging. Although he regarded himself as too slim, he did not manage to gain weight. Further medical checkups revealed no somatic cause for his underweight. An osteodensitometry yielded an osteopenia of the spine.”

Gender Identity

Twin A was a gender non-conforming gay male:

In childhood, he preferred girls’ games and toys (Barbie dolls) and was very close to his twin brother. His sexual feelings were always for males. Although he started cross-dressing at the age of about 16 years, his gender identification was always male. He considered himself to be a homosexual.”

Twin B was a trans woman:

“As far as he could remember, he had felt he was a girl, preferring girls as playmates and had started cross-dressing at nursery school. In gymnastic lessons, he refused to change with the other boys because he was ashamed of his body. Eventually, he refused to attend sports lessons at all. When he was 9 years old, he started to grow his hair. His class mates seemed to accept him as a girl. When he started to work as a hairdresser, he tried to correspond to the male gender role and did not cross-dress. However, at his professional school and in his free time, he continued to cross-dress. His employer, who realized he was transsexual, permitted and encouraged him to cross-dress at work, which consequently allowed him to live as a young woman. Sexually, he was always attracted to men. However, in contrast to his brother, he never considered himself to be homosexual and viewed this attraction as ‘‘heterosexual.’’ Until this point, he had not engaged in sexual relationships either with men or with women.”

Twin B requested hormonal and surgical sex reassignment.

Childhood

The twins grew up together in a small Swiss city without any other siblings. Their childhood was not easy:

“[Their father] was very authoritarian. He could not accept the sexual orientation and the cross-dressing of his sons and threatened them with assault and even with death.

…In family conflicts, [their mother] took a position between her husband and her sons. At a family consultation, she appeared emotionally unstable.”

Birth 

The birth was a difficult one. Both twins were underweight and spent time in intensive care.

“the mother had been admitted to a hospital with hypertension, edema, and proteinuria at 38 weeks of gestation. The vaginal delivery was induced because of maternal preeclampsia. Twin A weighed 2.17 kg at delivery and his Apgar score was 9/9/9. Because of perinatal acidosis and hypotonia, he was kept in the incubator for 3 days. He was diagnosed with a subependymal hemorrhage with ventricular invasion. Twin B’s birth weight at delivery was 1.95 kg and his Apgar score was 7/9/9. Both twins were admitted immediately to the neonatal intensive care unit.”

Developmental Delays

They both had developmental delays:

“In early childhood, Twin A showed a developmental delay in language and motor skills and had deficits in cognitive and verbal skills. He was socially isolated and his behavior was often aggressive.”

“…Twin B had delays in language and motor development during early childhood. He showed the typical symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. The parents refused further assessment and treatment.”

Other

Twin A was diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and subnormal verbal intelligence.

Twin B was diagnosed with gender dysphoria.

There is no obvious pattern to any of this. Twin A was larger at birth, but had more problems right after birth. Both had developmental delays, and Twin B may have had ADHD as well. Both were feminine in their behavior, but only Twin B developed gender dysphoria. Both were sexually attracted to men. Twin B developed an eating disorder earlier, but Twin A’s eating disorder seems more severe. Twin A has borderline personality disorder and Twin B does not.

Discussion

The authors offer two possible hypotheses about the twins’ gender identity.

Perhaps the twins are on a continuum of gender non-conformity where gender dysphoria is at the extreme end.

Alternatively, perhaps gender dysphoria* in childhood is inherited, but the later development of gender identity is determined by environmental factors and psychiatric comorbidity.

“In childhood, both Twin A and Twin B showed gender atypical behavior and stereotypical feminine traits and interests. In adolescence, their sexual orientation was revealed to be homosexual. Twin A developed effeminate homosexuality with male gender identity, whereas Twin B stabilized his cross-gender identity. Although Twins A and B are concordant for GID in childhood and sexual orientation on a categorical level, they are now discordant for TS. On a more dimensional level, one could argue that Twins A and B show an opposite sex-dimorphic behavior and that they arrived at different points of a continuum. The fact that GID in childhood is a predictor for later homosexuality and TS could support the dimensional view. It could be hypothesized that GID in childhood is mainly hereditary, whereas the development of the later phenotype of the gender identification is determined by environmental factors and psychiatric comorbidity, as any difference between MZ twins provides strong evidence for the role of environmental influences.”

The authors also discuss the relationship between gender and eating disorders. However, they don’t address the fact that the two twins had different gender identities, but both had eating disorders.

Perhaps both gay men and trans women are vulnerable to eating disorders for different reasons, but perhaps genes, hormones, and environment matter more than gender identity.

“Homosexual men seem to have an increased vulnerability to eating disturbance and body dissatisfaction (Williamson & Hartley, 1998), are more dissatisfied with their weight (French, Story, Remafedi, Resnick, & Blum, 1996), and are more concerned about their attractiveness (Siever, 1994). Male AN is associated with disturbed psychosexual and gender identity development, which supports the hypothesis that males with atypical gender role behavior have an increased risk of developing an ED (Fichter & Daser, 1987). Furthermore, feminine gender traits are discussed as a specific risk factor for ED in men and women (Meyer, Blissett, & Oldfield, 2001). Although the role of sexual orientation as a risk factor for ED is well documented, there is hardly any literature about GID and ED. For men with disturbance of gender identity in addition to the aforementioned factors concerning sexual orientation, underweight could be a way to suppress their libido and the expression of their secondary sexual characteristics and, at the same time, correspond to a female ideal of attractiveness (Hepp & Milos, 2002).”

We need more research!

“Further research in eating behavior and body dissatisfaction in patients with GID could provide more insight into the role of gender identity in the development of ED and lead to a better understanding of ED as well as GID.”

 

* In this case, gender non-conformity might be a more fitting phrase. Twin A does not seem to have ever wanted to be a girl.

 

Original Source:

Gender Identity Disorder and Anorexia Nervosa in Male Monozygotic Twins by Urs Hepp, Gabriella Milos, and Hellmuth Braun-Scharm in Int J Eat Disord. 2004 Mar;35(2):239-43.

 

Review of: Effects of treating gender dysphoria and anorexia nervosa in a transgender adolescent: Lessons learned

Another case where gender identity is linked to an eating disorder, this time in a trans man (born female).

And, another case where transition did not cure the eating disorder.

In this case a teenager who was being treated for his eating disorder requested therapy for gender dysphoria. His weight had already been restored, although he was still getting therapy for the eating disorder.

After counseling for gender dysphoria, the patient took testosterone and openly identified as a man. His anxiety improved, he had more friends, and he had his first girlfriend. Five months later, he had a bilateral mastectomy.

Ten months after surgery, the patient returned to the eating clinic for help. He said that his relapse began after his surgery and got worse when he returned to normal activity.

It is important to note that six months after surgery, the patient’s weight was normal and he felt better about his appearance. However, his eating patterns do not seem to have been discussed.

The patient had not continued counseling after surgery.

There are not many details on the patient’s gender dysphoria in this case study, but there does seem to be a connection between his eating disorder and his gender dysphoria. The patient “disclosed to his family that he felt like ‘a boy in a girl’s body’ and later acknowledged that his eating disorder was related to a desire to get rid of feminine features—’I dislike my curves, my breasts, my hips, my face. I wish I had more defined muscles in my arms and a more angular face.'”

It is worth noting, however, that the patient had two cousins with eating disorders. Genetics and environment were probably also factors in his eating disorder.

The authors make a number of important points about this case in their discussion.

We don’t know if medical transition helps with eating disorders.

“Studies show that medical interventions, including both hormone therapy and surgery, improve gender dysphoria. Their effects on disordered eating in patients with gender dysphoria, however, are less clear.”

On the one hand, in one qualitative study, a trans man who had had breast reduction surgery said it helped with his eating issues. In addition, another study found that patients who had had gender reassignment surgery had less body uneasiness than patients who had not or patients with eating disorders. It is not clear to me that this last study is relevant to patients with both gender dysphoria and eating disorders.

On the other hand,

“In our patient, although he experienced considerable improvement in body image, anxiety, and social functioning following treatment for gender dysphoria, he experienced a relapse in eating disorder behaviors postoperatively. Other case reports in adults describe similar relapses in disordered eating following medical treatment for gender dysphoria.* These cases suggest that, while GCS and other medical interventions often reduce psychological distress related to gender dysphoria, additional therapies may be required to ensure long-term resolution of disordered eating. Eating disorders have high rates of chronicity as well as relapse, particularly during periods of stress and life change. It is therefore crucial to engage all patients with gender dysphoria, regardless of their stage in treatment, in open conversations about eating patterns, body image, and thought processes.”

Urgent needs have to be taken care of first.

Treatment for patients with both eating disorders and gender dysphoria needs to be integrated and hierarchical; life threatening issues have top priority. In other words, you may have to eat before you can transition.

“Eating disorder treatment is complex given the combination of medical, psychological, and nutritional needs. Patients with gender dysphoria also have distinct needs related to gender incongruity. Using a hierarchical approach is one method to help focus therapy and ensure that all needs receive attention when appropriate. Life-threatening issues, such as vital sign instability from nutritional insufficiency or suicidality, should have first priority. These issues frequently require hospitalization to initiate nutritional rehabilitation and psychiatric care in a monitored environment. Following medical and psychiatric stabilization, weight restoration can often continue in the outpatient setting with multidisciplinary support from physicians, therapists, dietitians, and when possible, family members. Throughout treatment, the eating disorder team should strive to create a safe environment for the patient to explore the sources of his or her disordered eating, providing the opportunity to recognize or reveal any underlying issues. For patients with known gender dysphoria, the eating disorder team can assist by affirming the patient’s gender identity, allowing him or her to explore different options for expressing that identity, and providing resources for specialized care.”

Trans men’s eating disorders may look different from the norm.

Trans men may have different goals from other patients with eating disorders; patients with anorexia typically wish to be thin. Trans men may be trying to eliminate their period or reduce their curves as in this case and in this Turkish case study. The trans man in this study did not care about his weight, but was very dissatisfied with his body. It is important that these patients’ eating disorders not be missed because they are atypical. As the authors say,

“While the goals of weight loss in MtF patients often align with those of cisgender eating disorder patients, the goals of weight loss in FtM patients often diverge from those of cisgender patients, potentially limiting the utility of current eating disorder questionnaires in this population.”

We need to keep track of eating disorders after transition.

We can’t assume that a patient with an eating disorder will be fine after they are treated for their gender dysphoria. Treatment for the eating disorder needs to be ongoing.

“While improvement in gender dysphoria may lead to some improvement in eating pathology, many patients may benefit from additional support from an eating disorder team, as found for our patient. Further research should explore the success of different types of eating disorder treatment in adolescents with gender dysphoria before, during, and after gender dysphoria treatment.”

Not everyone needs the same treatment for gender dysphoria.

“Treatment for gender dysphoria varies from person to person. For some individuals, dysphoria can be alleviated through psychotherapy alone or combined with non-medical changes in gender expression. For many, gender dysphoria requires hormone therapy, surgery, or both. Adolescents who desire medical treatment later in life can use hormonal treatments to suppress or delay puberty. The Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health, however, recommends delaying suppression until the adolescent has reached at least Tanner Stage 2, so that he or she has some experience of his or her assigned sex. Hormone therapy to feminize or masculinize the body can also be started during adolescence, although this therapy should only be used in patients who demonstrate long-lasting or intense gender dysphoria, as the effects are only partially reversible. Surgery, on the other hand, may only be pursued once the patient reaches the age of majority for his or her country. For our patient, hormone therapy began at age 18 years, 10 months after expressing symptoms of gender dysphoria, and mastectomy was performed at age 19 years.”

Comparing eating disorders in transgender teens and adults

The authors also discuss the timeline of this case – i.e. gender dysphoria was diagnosed after the eating disorder. They contrast this with case reports of adults where an eating disorder developed during or after “assuming a transgender identity.” They add that “the only other case report available on adolescent patients describes a similar progression [to this study], with both patients initially presenting with AN and later expressing themselves as transgender.” 

Therefore, they suggest that “disordered eating may be the presenting symptom in some adolescents with gender dysphoria, highlighting the benefit of addressing gender identity in young patients with eating disorders. Gender identity may be addressed either using an intake form or during the patient interview.” (see below)

The situation is a little more complicated. In fact, in this case study a teenager developed an eating disorder when she decided to live as a woman. In addition, this study of an adult mentions that her eating disorder began at age 15 when she decided to live as a woman.

So we have two cases of teenagers who decided to live as women and then developed eating disorders and three cases of teenagers who were diagnosed with gender dysphoria during treatment for eating disorders. We don’t have enough cases to come to any real conclusions about the development of eating disorders and gender dysphoria in teenagers.

In any case, it may be that interviewing teenagers when they enter treatment for eating disorders will not lead to a diagnosis of gender dysphoria. In this case study, one of the teenagers was clear at the beginning of treatment that he was a gay man and did not want to be a woman. His gender dysphoria developed during the treatment of his eating disorder.

As always, we need more research. So far we have case studies of 17 patients. The individual cases vary widely and it’s unclear exactly how gender dysphoria and eating disorders are linked. It does not seem that treating gender dysphoria cures eating disorders, however.

This newest case study demonstrates that transition for gender dysphoria does not cure an eating disorder. It points to a connection between the eating disorder and the desire to be a man, but it also points to a possible contribution from genetic and environmental factors.

Original Source:

Effects of treating gender dysphoria and anorexia nervosa in a transgender adolescent: Lessons learned by Strandjord SE, Ng H, Rome ES in Int J Eat Disord. 2015 Nov;48(7):942-5.

 

*In this case study, one of the trans women had an eating disorder in adolescence that returned many years later after surgery. In this case study, one of the trans women had transitioned but was still severely underweight – although the authors did not seem to think she had an eating disorder. Finally, in this case study, a trans man developed an eating disorder after surgery. He had not had an eating disorder previously.

In addition, there are a number of case studies where patients had eating disorders, although they were on hormones and had socially transitioned.

 

More details from the case study:

The patient had been seeing doctors for a couple of years before he brought up his gender issues.

At age 16 the patient was not getting his period, but his weight was normal and he said he had no body image concerns. The doctors prescribed oral contraceptives.

“The patient returned a year later with 2.3 kg of weight loss, resulting in a body mass index (BMI) of 16.9 kg/m2 (81% expected body weight for females of the same age). CS acknowledged daily exercise and a ‘desire for a different body shape,’ with a ‘more toned and muscular’ appearance. The patient denied food restriction, purging behaviors, or body image distortion and committed to increasing caloric intake to gain weight. Gender identity was not discussed and no treatment was pursued after this visit.

Five months later, CS presented with an additional 4.5 kg weight loss, resulting in a BMI of 14.9 kg/m2 (70% expected body weight). The patient then admitted to food restriction as well as a fear of gaining weight, leading to a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN). The clinician did not inquire about underlying motivations for weight loss beyond general body dissatisfaction and anxiety.

There was no significant medical, psychiatric, or surgical history at the time of diagnosis. Family history included two cousins with eating disorders (specific diagnoses unknown). Socially, the patient was a high-achieving student with few peer relationships and no high-risk behaviors.”

At this point, the patient began 9 months of outpatient family-based therapy for anorexia. Four months into this treatment, he requested therapy for gender dysphoria. “He began biweekly individual psychotherapy to explore his gender identity and cognitive behavioral therapy to address ongoing anxiety.”

Ten months later he started to take testosterone and five months after that he had surgery to remove his breasts at age 19.

Medical treatment for gender dysphoria helped the patient significantly with his anxiety. He began to live as a man, expanded his peer relationships, and had his first romantic relationship with a woman.

His weight was stable for six months after surgery and he was more satisfied with his body, but the follow-up does not seem to have included any discussion of his eating (“a detailed discussion of his eating patterns and cognitions was not documented”).

He returned to the clinic four months later to deal with restrictive eating and excessive exercise. His body weight had decreased and his BMI had dropped from 19 kg/m2  to 17.9 kg/m2. He explained that “his relapse began postoperatively due to exercise restrictions and school-related stress, with his behaviors intensifying when he returned to normal activity.”

More details on interviewing patients about gender

The authors offer these sample approaches:

Sample approach on an intake form.
Use a two-step approach to identify both assigned sex and current gender identity.
Assigned sex at birth:
What sex were you assigned at birth, on your original birth certificate? (check one)
□ Male
□ Female
Current gender identity:
How do you describe yourself? (check one)
□ Male
□ Female
□ Transgender
□ Do not identify as male, female, or transgender
Sample approach in an interview.
Frame discussion with an opening statement.
“Because many people are affected by gender issues, I ask all patients if they have any concerns in this area. As with the rest of the visit, what you say will be kept strictly confidential.”
Begin discussion with a broad question(s).
“What questions or concerns do you have about gender, sexuality, or sexual orientation (who you are attracted to)?”
“How do you define your gender?”
“Have you been exploring gender?”

Sample intake form from:

Reisner SL, Conron KJ, Tardiff LA, Jarvi S, Gordon AR, Austin SB. Monitoring the health of transgender and other gender minority populations: Validity of natal sex and gender identity survey items in a U.S. national cohort of young adults. BMC Public Health2014; 14:1224. 

Sample approach for an interview from:

Makadon HJ. Ending LGBT invisibility in health care: The first step in ensuring equitable care. Cleve Clin J Med 2011; 78:220224

Review – Anorexia Nervosa in a Young Boy with Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood : a Case Report

This is the earliest (1997) case study of someone with both gender dysphoria and an eating disorder.

Eating disorders are rare in children and in males, so an eating disorder in a boy is very unusual.

The boy’s mother had “abnormal eating habits and attitudes” and had been diagnosed with anorexia while she was pregnant with him. The boy had always been small for his age and did not get enough calories due to “extreme faddiness [picky eating] and the failure of the family to eat regular meals.” He was diagnosed with gender identity disorder when he was ten.

The boy developed a severe eating disorder at age 12 after a doctor suggested that he be given hormones to induce puberty.

In his case it looks like his gender dypshoria triggered his eating disorder, but he probably had a predisposition to problems with eating.

Treatment focused on three things: building up his weight, therapy with his family, and therapy with the patient around gender issues. In addition, a teacher was involved to prevent bullying at school. The boy refused the hormone treatments to induce puberty.

The patient’s weight improved steadily until his size was normal for his age and height, but the therapists thought he might relapse in the future due to family conflict and social prejudice.

In this case what worked was a combination of therapy for both the eating disorder and the gender dysphoria, along with family issues.

As always, it is important to remember that this is a case study of just one person. So far, the main conclusion I can draw from cases studies is that each person’s story is different.

More details on the case:

The boy had been gender non-conforming since he was three and had stated that he wished to be a girl. At age 10 his weight dropped and he was referred to a psychiatrist who diagnosed him with gender identity disorder. He was being bullied at school for being gender non-conforming and developed depression, abdominal pain, and headaches.* He was also dealing with severe conflicts between his parents and an older brother with behavior problems.

At that time, therapists helped him develop coping strategies to deal with the bullying and counseled his parents. His eating, weight, and mood improved quickly.

At age 12, his weight dropped rapidly and he had cold extremities and no signs of puberty. He was living on water biscuits and low calorie orange squash (sweet fruit juice) while exercising up to five hours a day.

He was diagnosed with anorexia “in a context of long-standing eating problems and marital disharmony,” with the doctor’s recommendation of hormones to induce puberty as a “significant precipitant.”

“… he admitted feeling uncertain about hormone treatment. He wanted the comfort of acceptance by his social peer group, but felt happiest and most at ease in a feminine role. After the issue of hormone treatment was raised, B. briefly attempted to control and even deny cross-gender behaviors as if forcing himself to conform to male sex stereotypes. His behaviour soon returned to being highly effeminate. He dressed in female clothing and jewellery whenever he could, wore make-up and stylized his hair into a long pony-tail. His interests were hairdressing, fashion magazines, and knitting. At school he associated only with girls and was physically nauseated at the idea of having to play contact sports like rugby with other boys.”

Treatment included individual therapy related to his gender dysphoria:

“Individual work with B. was difficult because of his high level of denial. Over a period of time he began to focus on his dilemma between social conformity which would allow acceptance by others and his acknowledgement of his own revulsion at the idea of his developing male sexuality. In therapy he recognized that he had attempted to delay puberty by restricting his calorie intake. His anxiety about puberty related to his fear of the development of male secondary sex characteristics, the acquisition of a male sex drive, and potential loss of slimness. He was troubled and confused by homosexual and heterosexual fantasies. Exploration of these themes allowed some gradual resolution. Over a period of several months, he began to see some positive benefits from the eventual development of secondary male sex characteristics and to recognize that these changes did not necessarily preclude the continuance of cross-gender behaviour which was an undeniable part of his identity.”

A teacher at his school was also involved to “provide a contact in school who could help B. with teasing and tactfully educate other staff members about his special needs.”

His weight improved steadily and stabilized at 95 percent expected weight for his age and height.

Original Source:

Anorexia Nervosa in a Young Boy with Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood : a Case Report by E. Waters and L. Whitehead in Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry July 1997 vol. 2 no. 3 463-467.

 

*The narrative is a little confusing, but this seems to have happened before the resurgence of his eating problems at age 12.