This is a discussion of facial feminization surgeries performed on 35 trans women between 1992 and 1996. The surgeries seem to have been done at the Free University Hospital of Amsterdam. Based on the dates and the photos, this study includes the 16 individuals discussed in an earlier article.
Forty-six patients with GID were referred for possible surgery; of these “In 11 cases, patients’ expectations and surgical possibilities did not match,” so they did not have any surgery.
The authors provide in-depth information on the different surgeries they used and how they work.
As in the earlier study, the patients were happy and felt that the surgeries had made them appear more feminine, but the patients had also changed in other ways at the same time.
Once again, it is hard to judge from the before and after pictures because the patients often have different hair-dos, etc. In some cases, the patients look like they might pass before surgery.
The authors conclude:
there is a need for a more objective standardization of the differences in the facial features of the two sexes, to facilitate surgical treatment planning and more objectively assess the outcome of the facial surgery on psychosocial functioning and appearance, not only from the perspective of those treating, but also from the patient’s own point of view.
Transgender Feminization of the Facial Skeleton by Alfred G. Becking, D. Bram Tuinzing, , J. Joris Hage, , Louis J.G. Gooren,
Note: This article contains photos of surgery.