Appendix to Orgasm after Vaginoplasty

Further information on the studies used in the article Orgasm after Vaginoplasty.

Lawrence, 2005 (USA):

Surgeries were performed between 1994-2000, all by the same surgeon (Dr. Meltzer).

232 trans women returned an anonymous questionnaire by mail; 227 answered the question on orgasm by masturbation.

Follow-up time after surgery was a minimum of one year.

32% of the eligible participants returned the survey.

The technique used was described as “penile-inversion vaginoplasty and clitoroplasty using a portion of the glans penis on a dorsal neurovascular pedicle.”

18% were never able to achieve orgasm by masturbation; 15% were not able to orgasm from any sexual activity. 

Imbimbo et al., 2009 (Italy):

Surgeries were performed between 1992-2006 at the same institution.

139 trans women participated, 93 completed questionnaires at the clinic, 46 had phone interviews. 33 women answered the question on masturbation.

Follow up-time after surgery was 12-18 months.

85% of eligible participants took part in the study.

Three different techniques were used, 34% of the trans women had penile skin inversion, 61% had peno-scrotal flap, and 5% had an enterovaginoplasty.

18% of the trans women were never able to orgasm by masturbation; 14% of the trans women complained of anorgasmia

Buncamper et al., 2015 (the Netherlands):

Surgeries were performed between 2007-2010 VUmc in Amsterdam.

49 trans women completed questionnaires at their clinic.

Follow-up time after surgery was 1.9-5.8 years (average = 4.1 years).

61% of eligible participants took part in the study.

A penile skin inversion technique was used.

10% had not had orgasm after surgery.

Selvaggi et al., 2007 (Belgium):

Surgeries were performed between 1986-2001 at Ghent University Hospital.

30 trans women were personally interviewed by a team of experts:*

Follow-up time after surgery was a minimum of one year.

51% of eligible participants took part in the study. (All French patients were excluded from consideration for the study; 24% of all patients participated.)

Technique was described as “vaginoclitoroplasties with the penoscrotal inverted skin flap modified and dorsal glans pedicled flap,” however there may have been some earlier patients with a different technique; this is unclear.

15% had not experienced orgasm after surgery during any sexual practice.

Giraldo et al., 2004  (Spain):

Surgeries were performed “during the last two years” by the same surgeon (Giraldo)

16 trans women were given structured interviews at follow-up visits.

Follow-up time is unclear.

100% of eligible participants took part in the study.

The new technique is described as a “corona glans clitoroplasty with urethropreputial vestibuloplasty.”

0% had problems – all the women reported the ability to achieve orgasm

Note: This study is about a modification to the technique for creating a clitoris.

Hess et al., 2014 (Germany):

Surgeries were performed between 2004-2010 at the Essen University Hospital’s Department of Urology.

119 trans women returned anonymous questionnaires by mail, 91 answered the question “How easy it is for you to achieve orgasm?”

Follow up time was 1-7 years.

47% of eligible participants took part in the study.

The technique used was a penile inversion vaginoplasty with sensitive clitoroplasty; they did it in a two-step process.

18% said they never achieve orgasm; however it is unclear if they were sexually active or not.

Perovic et al., 2000 (Yugoslavia):

Surgeries were performed between 1994-1999.

89 trans women were interviewed.

Follow-up time was 0.25-6 years (mean = 4 years).

100% of eligible participants took part in the study.

The technique used was a penile inversion with penile skin and urethral flap and a clitoris from the glans.

It looks like 18% had not experienced orgasm during vaginal sex, but it is possible that some of the women were not sexually active.

Goddard et al., 2007 (United Kingdom):

Surgeries were performed between 1994-2004 in Leicester.

70 trans women were interviewed by a telephone questionnaire; 64 of them had had a clitoroplasty:

Follow-up time was 9-96 months (median = 3 years).

30% of eligible participants took part in the study.

233 patients had penectomy, urethroplasty, and labiaplasty, 202 had skin-lined vaginas. A penoscrotal flap was preferentially used. 207 had neoclitorises created. A sensate clitoris was made with a proximal dorsal triangle of the glans penis maintained on its neurovascular bundle.

It looks like 52% of the women with clitorses were not able to achieve clitoral orgasm, but again it is not clear if they were sexually active.

Wagner et al., 2010, (Germany):

Surgeries were performed between 2001-2008 at Martin Luther University in Halle by a single surgeon with extensive surgical experience.

50 trans women completed a questionnaire.

Follow-up time is unclear, but the mean was 3 years.

100% of eligible participants took part in the study.

A penile-inversion technique was used with a neoclitoris made from the glans cap.

It looks like between 17% and 30% were not able to achieve clitoral orgasm, depending on whether or not the patients were sexually active.

Salvador et al., 2012 (Brazil):

Surgeries were performed between 2000-2004 at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre.

52 trans women participated in the study. It is unclear how they were surveyed, but based on this earlier study, it could have been a combination of a questionnaire and interview.

Follow-up time was a minimum of two years.

75% of eligible participants took part in the study.

The study gives no information on the surgical technique used.

8% did not consider vaginal sex pleasurable, however, only one woman said sexual intercourse was unsatisfactory (2%).


*The exact number of the participants is unclear because this study is one of a pair using the same participants. The other study by de Cuypere et al. did in-depth interviews with 32 trans women while this one focused on testing the sensitivity of the genitals for 30 trans women.

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